UNIT 27: CONFLICT OF LAWS
- Explain the origin of terms: conflict of laws and private international law
- Explain why the term „conflict of laws“ is preferred in common law countries
- Define conflict of laws
- Explain the main concerns of conflict of laws
- Provide examples of conflict of laws
- Explain the canons for the choice of law
Key terms: adjudication, canon, jurisdiction
Collocations: applicable law, choice of law, enforcement of foreign judgements, foreign element, judicial jurisdiction, recognition of foreign judgements, resolution of the dispute
UNIT 28: TYPES OF ENGLISH CIVIL LAW
- Explain different meanings of the term „civil law“
- Enumerate the most important subcategories of English civil law
- Define a contract
- Define a tort
- Enumerate the main types of tort
- Explain the relations between contract and tort (provide examples)
- Enumerate other categories of civil law
Key terms: award, contract, contractual,copyright, defamation, damages, equitable, forbearance, hold, injury, libel, negligence, nuisance, offender,patent, practitioner, revenue,slander, sue, tort, tortious, fortfeasor, trader, tresspass, tribunal, wrong
Collocations: break the law, equitable obligation, to hold someone liable, injured party, liquidated damages, merchantable quality, trade union, unliquidated damages
UNIT 29: CONTRACT
1. Provide a definition of contract
2. Explain the difference between contracts and agreements
3. Enumerate requirements for a valid contract
4. Explain what voidable contracts are
5. Explain which contracts are unenforceable
Key terms: defective contract, duress, genuine agreement, hire-purchase contract, legal capacity, legal consequences, misrepresentation, promissory note, undue influence, unenforceable contract, valid contract, void contract, voidable contract
Collocations: to assign copyright, to avoid a contract, to be affected by a flaw, binding agreement, bill of exchange, binding offer to be enforced by the courts, to be supported by consideration, to comply with, to possess legal capacity, to set the contract aside
UNIT 30: NEGLIGENCE
- Provide a definition of negligence.
- List the elements of negligence.
- Explain the terms 'duty of care' and 'causation'.
- Provide examples of duty of care.
- Provide examples of situations where there is negligence but no causation.
- Explain the terms 'foreseeable damage' and 'remote damage'.
- Explain what damages for negligence may include.
- Explain the term 'strict liability'.
Key terms: negligence, duty of care, breach of duty of care, causation, the 'but for' test, damages, general damages, specific damages, foreseeable damage, remoteness of damage, proximate cause, reasonable man, statutory negligence, strict liability
Collocations: to act negligently, to sustain damage/an injury, to file a negligence claim
UNIT 31 ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS
1. Explain the foundations for a successful economy
2. Explain the position of entrepreneurs on the market
3.Enumerate instruments of economic policy which modern states use to intervene in market relations
4. Explain what workers are entitled to
5.Enumerate the most important social rights of citizens of democratic states
6. Explain the concept of cultural rights
Key terms: economic policy, entrepreneur, entrepreneurial freedom, fair remuneration, free market competition, monopoly, social insurance, subsidies, trade unions
Collocations: to enjoy an equal legal position in the market, to exercise the right to work, to intervene in market relations, to prevent the abuse of something
UNIT 32: FORMS OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION IN THE UNITED STATES
- Name the three principal forms of business organizations in the USA
- Explain the difference between a sole proprietorship and a partnership
- Explain the main attributes of a corporation
- Explain the types of liability in the three forms of business organizations
- Compare the American forms of business organizations with the basic terms from the Croatian Commercial Code (ZTD, article 1 – 3), such as trgovac, trgovačko društvo, trgovac pojedinac.
Key terms: sole proprietorship/individual ownership, partnership, corporation, retail store/whole sale, liability, profit, loss, perpetual life/succession, transferability of shares, access to capital, professional management
Collocations: a form of business organization, possibility of growth/expansion, (un)limited control over business, (un)limited personal responsibility, association of persons/ capital, a voluntary agreement of partners, artificial person, to form a business, to enjoy profits, to incur losses/debt, to share profits/losses, to utilize/combine capital/labor/skill, to carry on business, to be liable to somebody for something
UNIT 33: JUDICIAL CONTROL OF PUBLIC AUTHORITIES
1. Give examples of public authorities
2. Explain the concepts of delegated and subdelegated legislation
3. Explain the term ultra vires and provide its English synonyms
4 . Define the doctrine of judicial review
5. Name and explain the three grounds for judicial review
6. Elaborate on the two types of judicial review (judicial review of legislation and of administrative acts)
7. Describe the two ways of obtaining remedy (direct challenge, challenge in collateral proceedings)
Key terms: delegated legislation, public authority, ultra vires, judicial review, legislative body, a direct challenge, challenge in collateral proceeding, enforcement proceedings,
Collocations: to give/have power to do something, to follow the procedure, to step outside (defined) limits, to act beyond powers, to obtain a remedy, to impugn/challenge an act of administration, to require action to be taken, to quash a decision, to arise incidentally, to be affected by something, to commit an offence, the means of ensuring something, an act of administration = an administrative act, the validity of an administrative act
UNIT 34: POLICE POWERS IN GREAT BRITAIN
1. Discuss the general mission of the police in the society
2. Name the main police powers in Great Britain, including ‘stop and account’ http://www.bedfordshire.police.uk/advice_centre/stop_and_search/what_is_stop_and_account.aspx
3. Explain how the police should exercise their powers in a lawful way
4. Provide examples of the police acting beyond their powers
5. Consult the Croatian Code concerning police powers (Zakon o policijskim poslovima i ovlastima)
and report about three to four powers you have chosen
Key terms: the police power/powers, arrest, entry, search, seizure, false imprisonment, (un)lawful, an arrestable offence, a warrant, an evidence, detinue/conversion, damages
Collocations: to be guilty of a crime/tort/an offence, to be entitled to use reasonable force, to make the arrest, to resist arrest, to escape from custody, to search a person/premises, to enter premises, an arrest under a warrant, entry onto private property, to constitute a tort of trespass, to expel the trespasser, to seize articles/documents, to be evidence against somebody, to do something without lawful justification, to obtain damages